By Roger Chickering

The Pan-German League was once the main radical of the entire patriotic societies in Imperial Germany, the main ferocious voice of German nationalism. Its application truly expected that of the Nazis in calling for German enlargement at the eu continent and in another country, in branding Jews as contributors of an inferior but risky race, and in advocating a German nationwide group within which inner antagonisms of no matter what personality could dissolve. This research provides the 1st systematic research of the cultural assets of this organization's attraction and impression in Imperial Germany. It specializes in the symbolic dimensions of the Pan-German League's literature and actions, in an try and clarify the amazing appeal of the League's competitive ideology to definite decide upon social teams. The examine examines, furthermore, the connection among the League and different patriotic societies in Imperial Germany; and it analyzes the strategies in which the association succeeded, at the eve of the 1st global battle, in mobilizing a vast 'national competition' to the German executive. The examine attracts on innovations from psychology and anthropology, and its documentary origin contains archival fabric in either East and West Germany

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The literature at the antisemitic events is enormou~. 1\vo fresh paintings~ have complete reference~: Peter G. J. Pulzer, Tiu: upward thrust of Political Anti-Semitism in Gerniany and Austria (J\'. cw York. 1Yh.. J. ): Richard S. Levy, The Do1vnjall of the Anti-. '. ,·emilic J->olitica! l,arties in Iinperiul (;ermany (New Haven, Conn. and London, 1975). Leibenguth, pp. 320-1. ADB (l('. )94), 157; Eley, Reshaping. pp. 176-7; Martin BroszaL 'Die antisemitische Bewegung im \Vilhelminischen Dcut5chland' (Diss. phi!.. Cologne. 1q52). p. 124; Oncken, ·Lebensraum', p. 39. See Jack Richard Dukes, ·Hclgoland, Zanzibar, East Africa: colonialism in German politic~. 1XH-+-1 X90' (PhD Diss. , college of fllinois. 1970). Sec \1anfred promote. ·Die deutsche 6ftentliche Meinung und das Hclgolandabkommen irn Jaine I X90' (Dis-;. phil. , Cologne, I 920 ). DKZ (1890). 177--<~l; Klaus-.. p. 240; Pierard, pp. 135--? l: Smith, 'Ideology', pp. 344-5. the entire textual content is in Bonhard. pp. 233-7 (Anlagc 1 ). at the founding of the final German League in 1K91 sec ibid .. pp. 1--4; \Verner, pp. 27-34; Werthein1er, pp. 22--48. Bonhard, p. three. ibid. , p. -+. MADV (1. h. 91), J ... 2. Klauss, pp. 242-+; Bade. pp. 352-3. O'Donnell. p. 313: Leibenguth, p. 264; Eley, Reshaping, p. forty nine. (Juratzsch, pp. 22--6, 60-1. even though Kruck exaggerates while he calls Hugenberg ·the actual lather ol the Pan-German circulate' (p. 8), the fellow did play an important position in shaping the constitution of the association. ZSt. A. P, ADV 2, Arendt RS, An die Mitglicdcr des Vorstandes des Allgemeinen Deubchen Verbandes, June 1891. \fADV (21. five. 92). 47--t:. LStAP, ADV three, \'er.. ;cichnis dcr Ortsgruppcn, 10. 7. ninety one. 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 seventy one MADY (21. five. 92). forty six. ADV (1894), fifty eight; cf. Freise1,passini; Leibenguth. pp. 267-8. Bonhard, p. 205. Schbdl. p. thirteen. As in Hildesheim: MADY (1. nine. 93), ninety six. LStAP, ADV three. Verzeichnis der Ortsgruppen, 10. 7. ninety three; cf. MADV (15. eleven. 92), 82--4. MADY (1. eight. 93), eighty three. -.. J.. Schultheiss, Vereinswesen. p. seventy seven. ZStAP, ADV three. Bericht des llerrn van Eycken an der Vorstandssitzung von1 five. 7. ninety three; Bonhard, p. five. 39 MADY (24. 111. 91), 23; MADY (19. 1. 92), 35. forty ZStAP, ADV 183, \Vislicenus to Has~e. Berlin, five. nine. ninety three, eight. nine. ninety three: NIADV (8. 7. 92), h7. forty-one ZAtAP, ADV three, Heydt and Schroeder-Poggelow RS, Berlin, 23. 1. ninety three; cf. Eley, Reshaping, pp. 49-50. forty two ZStAP, ADV 369, Hasse\ Lebenslaut; Hasse als 1-'olitiker (Leipzig, 1898): ADB (1906), 45-7; AD13 (1908), 18-20, 26-30; Hans-Giinther Lmarz! ik, 'Ernst Hasse'. NDB, vol. eight, pp. 39--40. forty three Bernhard von Biilow, :Hemoirs of Prince von Billow. four vols (Boston, Mass .. 1931-2), Vol. three, p. 353; \Vertheimer, p. forty five, n. four. forty four ADB (19111 ), 498. forty five ZStAP, ADV 369, Hasse to Lehmann, Leipzig, 29. 12. 07. forty six ZStAP, ADV three, llasse RS. Berlin, four. 2. ninety four. forty seven ZStAP, ADY thirteen, Vorstands- und Ausschussitzung ProtokolL DiisseldorL thirteen. 12. ninety seven; ADB (1898), three. forty eight ZStAP, ADV three, Hasse RS, 18. eight. ninety three. forty nine ibid. , Hasse to Levetzov," Berlin. 7. 6. ninety four: Hasse RS, Berlin, eight. 6. ninety four; ADB (1894), 109. 50 ADB (1897 J. eighty. fifty one ADB (1894), 153, 211-12; ADB (1895). 77-9. fifty two ADB (1898). three; ADB (1906). seventy three. fifty three AOB (1895), 37-411. fifty four ZStAP, ADV three, Hasse RS, Leipzig, l. S. eight. ninety three; ADB (1894), 1-2.

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