By Elizabeth Jeffreys, John H. Pryor

This quantity examines the improvement and evolution of the struggle galley referred to as the Dromon, and its relative, the Chelandion, from first visual appeal within the 6th century till its supercession within the 12th century by means of the Galea built within the Latin West. starting as a small, fully-decked, monoreme galley, by way of the 10th century the Dromon had turn into a bireme, the pre-eminent conflict galley of the Mediterranean. The salient beneficial properties of those ships have been their two-banked oarage method, the spurs at their bows which changed the ram of classical antiquity, their lateen sails, and their basic weapon: Greek hearth. The publication contextualizes the technical features of the ships in the operational heritage of Byzantine fleets, logistical difficulties of medieval naval war, and strategic goals. Surviving Byzantine resources, in particular tactical manuals, are subjected to shut literary and phiological research.

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2, VIII. xxvi. 1-25, VIII. xxxv. 12-38 (vol. five, pp. 324-6, 326-36, 410-18). THE OPERATIONAL CONTEXT 19 and the Empire back managed Italy, all the islands, and all Mediterranean coasts apart from the strip held via the Visigoths in Spain and the Franks within the Languedoc and Provence. yet neither of those have been bellicose at sea and the solidarity of the Mediterranean was once restored back till the invasion of Italy by means of the Lombards from 568. the second one interval, ca 560-750: the Muslim attack and imperial restoration The Lombard invasion of Italy lower than Alboin in 568 was once prompted through strain on their Pannonia place of origin from the Avars within the mid 6th century. A nomadic Turkic humans, the Avars first made touch with the Empire in 558, conquering and taking away the Kutrigurs and Antai north of the Black Sea and the Gepids in Dacia. as soon as validated in Pannonia round the confluences of the Danube, Sava, and Tisza rivers, inevitable frictions with the Empire finally resulted in a mixed Avar and Persian siege of Constantinople in 626. although, the Avars’ dugout canoes have been destroyed by means of imperial squadrons and the siege dissipated, and then they suffered defeats by the hands of the Croats and Bulgars and their possibility lowered. 28 The Lombard invasion induced the flight of the Roman population of Aquileia to the islands of the lagoons and ended in the basis of Venice. The northern inland towns fast fell, leaving in imperial arms in basic terms coastal strongholds which can be provided from the ocean. Pavia fell after 3 years and inside seven years such a lot of Italy were occupied. In 571 they swept into southern Italy, taking Benevento and developing a southern duchy focused on that urban which might turn into a principality and which, including its dual at Spoleto, might dominate south Italy for centuries. among 584 and 588 the Romans in Ravenna outfitted a fleet and, with assistance from a disgruntled Lombard duke, drove the Lombards from its port of Classe, hence setting up the exarchate of Ravenna. Imperial presence in Italy grew to become restrained to the exarchate and a belt of territory working south-west to Rome, including such a lot of Apulia and Calabria. Over the following centuries it waned steadily, Rome being misplaced to the Papacy through the first 1/2 the 8th century, and through the hole of the 9th century was once restricted to southern -----------------------------28 Chronicon Paschale, Annus 726 (pp. 715-26); George of Pisidia, Bellum Avaricum; Theophane2s, Chronographia, A. M. 6117 (p. 316). 20 bankruptcy ONE desk 2: Rulers of the second one interval, ca 560-750 Byzantine Empire The Muslims Muh5ammad and the Caliphs Governors of al-Andalus Justin II (565-78) Tiberios II (578-82) Maurice (582-602) Pho2kas (602-10) Herakleios I (610-41) The Prophet Muh5ammad (to 632) The Rightly Guided Caliphs Abu2 Bakr (632-4) ‘Umar ibn al-Khat6t6a2b (634-44) Constantine III (641) Heraklo2nas (641) Constans II (641-68) ‘Uthma2n ibn ‘Affa2n (64456) ‘Alı3 ibn Abı3 T4a2lib (65661) The Umayyad Caliphs Constantine IV (668-85) Justinian II (685-95) Mu‘a2wiya I ibn Abı3Sufya2n (661-80) Yazı3d I (680-83) Mu‘a2wiya II (683-4) Marwa2n I ibn al-H4akam (684-5) ‘Abd al-Malik (685-705) Leontios (695-8) Tiberios III (698-705) Justinian II (705-11) Philippikos (711-13) Al-Walı3d I (705-15) ‘Abd al-‘Azı3z ibn Mu2sa2 (714-16] 21 THE OPERATIONAL CONTEXT (Table 2 endured) Lombards Visigoths (K) Kings (M) Arnulfing Mayors of the Palace (K) Kings (B) Dukes of Benevento Alboin (K 568-72) Zotto (B 571-91) Cleph (K 572-4) Authari (K 584-80) Interregnum Agilulf (K 590-616) Arichis I (B 591-641) Adaloald (K 616-26) Ariold (K 626-36) Rothari (K 636-52 Merovingians at the Mediterranean Guntram (K 561-92) Recared I (586-601) Leova II (601-3) Witterich (603-10) Gundemar (610-12) Sisebut (612-21) Recared II (621) Swinthila (621-31) Sisenand (631-6) Chintila (636-40 Tulga (640-42) Childebert II (K 593-5) Theodoric II (K 595-613) Sigibert II (K 613) Clovis II (K 639-56) Ayo I (B 641-2) Radoald (B 642-6) Grimoald I (B 646-62) Rodoald (K 652) Aribert I (K 652-61) Godepert/ Perctarit (K 661-2) Grimoald (K 662-71) Chindaswinth (642-52) Receswinth (653-72) Clothar III (K 656-61) Perctarit (K 671-88) Romoald I (B 662-87) Wamba (672-80) Erwig (680-87) Childeric I (K 673-75) Theodoric III (K 675-90) Pepin II (M 680-714) Grimoald II (B 687-92) Gisulf I (B 692-706) Cunipert (K 688-700) Egica (687-701) Clovis III (K 690-4) Childebert III (K 694-711) Luitpert (K seven hundred) Aribert II (K 700-12) Romoald II (B 706-30) Witiza (701-9) Roderick (709-11) Muslim conquest Ansprand (K 712) Dagobert III (K 711-15) 22 bankruptcy ONE (Table 2 persisted) Byzantine Empire The Muslims Muh5ammad and the Caliphs Anastasios II (713-15) Theodosios III (715-17) Sulayma2n (715-17) Leo III (717-40) ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azı3z (717-20) Yazı3d II (720-24) Hisha2m (724-43) Constantine V (740-75) Al-Walı3d II (743-4) Yazı3d III (744) Ibra2hı3m (744) Marwa2n II al-H4ima2r (74450) ‘Abba2sid Caliphs Al-Saffa2h5 (749-54) Al-Mans5u2r (754-75) Governors of al-Andalus Ayyu2b ibn H4abı3b alLakhmi (716) Al-H4u rr ibn ‘Abd alRah5m a2n al Thaqafı3 (717-19) Al-Samh5 ibn Malik alKhawla2nı3 (719-21) ‘Abd al-Rah5m a2n alGha2fiqı3 (721) ‘Anbasa ibn Suh5aym alKalbı3 (721-5) ‘Udhra ibn ‘Abd Alla2h alFihrı3 (725-6) Yah5ya2 ibn Sala2m a alKalbı3 (726-8) H4udhayfa ibn al-Ah4was5 al-Qaysı3 (728-9) ‘Uthma2n ibn Abı3 Nas5r alKhath‘amı3 (729) Al-H4aytham ibn ‘Ubayd al-Kila2b ı33 (729-30) Muh5ammad ibn ‘Abd Alla2h al-Ashja‘ı3 (730) ‘Abd al-Rah5m a2n ibn ‘Abd Alla2h al-Gha2fiqı3 (73032) ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Qat6an al-Fihrı3 (732-4, 74041) ‘Uqba ibn al-H4ajja2j alSalu2lı3 (734-40) Tha‘laba ibn Sala2m a al‘A›milı3 (742-3) Abu2 al-Qat6t6a2r al-H4usa2m (743-5) Thawa2b a ibn Yazı3d (7456) Yu2suf ibn ‘Abd alRah5m a2n al-Fihrı3 (74656) _________ Umayyad amı3rs 23 THE OPERATIONAL CONTEXT (Table 2 persisted) Lombards (K) Kings (B) Dukes of Benevento Visigoths Merovingians at the Mediterranean (K) Kings (M) Arnulfing Mayors of the Palace Liutprand (K 713-44) Charles Martel (M 714-41) Audelaius (B 730-32) Gregory (B 732-9) Godescalc (B 739-42) Chilperic II (K 719-20) Theodoric IV (K 721-37) Gisulf II (B 742-51) Hildebrand (K 744) Ratchis (K 744-49) Aistulf (K 749-56) Desiderius (K 756-74) Liutprand (B 751-58) Arichis II (B 758-87) Carloman (M 741-7) Pepin III (M 741-51) Childeric III (K 743-51) _________ Carolingian kings 24 bankruptcy ONE Apulia and Calabria.

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